Of HCV had been amplified and sequenced making use of the approaches we lately described.12,13 To avoid probable carryover contaminations, Cathepsin S, Human (HEK293, His) normal procedures had been taken.30 The resulting sequences were then analyzed utilizing the BioEdit computer software.31 Before tree building, the best-fitting substitution model was selected using jModeltest based on the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC).32 Consistent with our current results, GTR +I+ was found to be the best for all datasets.11 Beneath this model, ML trees were heuristically searched by SPR and NNI perturbation algorithms implemented in PHYML.33 With the tree files generated, ML tree topology was displayed using the MEGA5 program.AcknowledgmentsFunding: The study was supported by a grant from NIAID/NIH (5 R01 AI080734-03A).REFERENCE1. Simmonds P, Bukh J, Combet C, Deleage G, Enomoto N, et al. Consensus proposals for a unified program of nomenclature of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Hepatology. 2005; 42:962?73. [PubMed: 16149085] two. Pham VH, Nguyen HD, Ho PT, Banh DV, Pham HL, et al. Extremely high prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotype 6 variants in southern Vietnam: large-scale survey based on sequence determination. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2011; 64:537?39. [PubMed: 22116339] 3. McOmish F, Yap PL, Dow BC, Follett EA, Seed C, et al. Geographical distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in blood donors: an international collaborative survey. J Clin Microbiol. 1994; 32:884?92. [PubMed: 7913097] 4. Pybus OG, Barnes E, Taggart R, Lemey P, Markov PV, et al. Genetic history of hepatitis C virus in East Asia. J Virol. 2009; 83:1071?082. [PubMed: 18971279] five. Simmonds P. Genetic diversity and evolution of hepatitis C virus–15 years on. J Gen Virol. 2004; 85:3173?188. [PubMed: 15483230] 6. Pybus OG, Charleston MA, Gupta S, Rambaut A, Holmes EC, et al. The epidemic behavior from the hepatitis C virus. Science. 2001; 292:2323?325. [PubMed: 11423661]J Clin Virol. Author manuscript; out there in PMC 2014 August 01.Gu et al.Page7. Pybus OG, Cochrane A, Holmes EC, Simmonds P. The hepatitis C virus epidemic amongst injecting drug users. Infect Genet Evol. 2005; five:131?39. [PubMed: 15639745] eight. Tanaka Y, Hanada K, Mizokami M, Yeo AE, Shih JW, et al. A comparison in the molecular clock of hepatitis C virus inside the United states of america and Japan predicts that hepatocellular carcinoma incidence inside the United states will boost over the next two decades. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002; 99:15584?5589. [PubMed: 12438687] 9. Goedert JJ, Chen BE, Preiss L, Aledort LM, Rosenberg PS. Reconstruction of the hepatitis C virus epidemic within the US hemophilia population, 1940-1990. Am J Epidemiol. 2007; 165:1443?453. [PubMed: 17379617] 10. Hauri AM, Armstrong GL, Hutin YJ. The worldwide burden of disease attributable to contaminated injections offered in overall IL-1 beta Protein Storage & Stability health care settings. Int J STD AIDS. 2004; 15:7?six. [PubMed: 14769164] 11. Fu Y, Qin W, Cao H, Xu R, Tan Y, et al. HCV 6a prevalence in Guangdong province had the origin from Vietnam and current dissemination to other regions of China: phylogeographic analyses. PLoS 1. 2012; 7:e28006. [PubMed: 22253686] 12. Fu Y, Wang Y, Xia W, Pybus OG, Qin W, et al. New trends of HCV infection in China revealed by genetic analysis of viral sequences determined from first-time volunteer blood donors. J Viral Hepat. 2011; 18:42?two. [PubMed: 20196805] 13. Lu L, Nakano T, He Y, Fu Y, Hagedorn CH, et al. Hepatitis C virus genotype distribution in China: predominance of closely connected subtype 1b isolates and existence of new.