Illicit drug use (Seal et al., 2003). Presently, little is identified about
Illicit drug use (Seal et al., 2003). At present, little is identified regarding the prevalence and correlates of HCV infection among populations who face the dual vulnerabilities of being homeless and obtaining a history of incarceration. Understanding the correlates of HCV infection amongst these populations is essential to building patient profiles for targeted interventions to reduce risk for this preventable, however highly transmissible infection.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author RIPK1 custom synthesis ManuscriptHCV danger among homeless and previously incarcerated personsHomeless populations and ex-inmates are at higher threat for HCV (Stein, Nyamathi, Ullman, Bentler, 2007). In a study of homeless adults (N=884) residing in 36 shelters and also other areas in Los Angeles (LA), Nyamathi, Dixon et al., (2002) identified that 22 were HCVinfected. Correlates of HCV infection in that study PKCĪ¼ custom synthesis included older age, living on one’s own before the age of 18 and chronic, recent alcohol use (Nyamathi, Dixon et al., 2002). Recent every day customers of crack have been extra most likely than non-users or less-frequent users of crack to become HCV-infected. Individuals who have been homeless for greater than a single year were also much more most likely to become HCV optimistic. IDUs had 25 times greater odds of being infected with HCV than their non-drug using counterparts (Nyamathi, Dixon et al., 2002). In an additional study of HCV amongst homeless guys (N=198) in LA, Stein Nyamathi (2004) located that almost half were HCV optimistic. HCV seropositivity was correlated with recent IDU, non-injection substance use, severity of homelessness, tattoos, sexually transmitted disease (STD), incarceration in jailprison, and older age; such that older men were a lot more likely to become HCV good because of lifetime IDU (Stein Nyamathi, 2004). Congruent with this work, among older homeless men on skid row (N=104; 18-65), HCV RNA presence in semen was found among older males when compared to their younger counterparts (p= .06). Further, drug connected threat elements integrated getting a lifetime methamphetamine user (p= .01), and those who applied barbiturates (p=0.044), cocaine (p=0.038) and methadone (p=.02) (Nyamathi, Robbins et al., 2002). In another Los Angeles primarily based cross sectional study of homeless youth (N=156), unadjusted evaluation showed that drug use (e.g. cocaine and methamphetamine) was associated to older age (Nyamathi, Hudson, Greengold, Leake, 2012). Data suggest that IDU use is a powerful predictor for HCV transmission (Tompkins, Wright, Jones, 2005). Hall, Charlebois, Hahn, Moss and Bangsberg (2004) studied HCV infection among homeless adults (N=249, 24-75) in San Francisco and immediately after conducting bivariate analysis identified that HCV viral load was not linked with age (Hall, Charlebois, Hahn, Moss, Bangsberg, 2004). In bivariate evaluation, other correlates of HCV infection have been amongst those that have been younger (p=.01), IDU customers (p=.014), had larger ALT levels (p= .001); after conducting multivariate evaluation, predictors of HCV infections had been history of IDU (p.001) and getting younger than 35 (p=.001) (Hall et al., 2004).J Forensic Nurs. Author manuscript; accessible in PMC 2014 June 01.Nyamathi et al.PageAmong a sample of 330 homeless and marginally housed HIV-positive adults, 65 had been located to become HCV optimistic (Riley, Bangsberg, Guzman, Perry, Moss, 2005), nearly 25 slept on the streets or inside a shelter, although more than 50 had been homeless for more than one year (Riley et al., 2005). Over 90 had applied drugs in their lifetime; 54 currently used.