Esources, E.M.;data curation, E.M. and I.G.-J.; writing–original draft preparation, E.M.; writing–review and editing, I.G.-J., T.P., and E.M.; visualization, E.M.; supervision, E.M.; project administration, E.M.; funding acquisition, E.M. All authors have study and agreed for the published version in the manuscript. Funding: This investigation was funded by Fondo de Investigacion Sanitaria (FIS PI18CIII/00045) and also by Plan Nacional de I+D+i 2013016 and Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Subdirecci Common de Redes y Centros de Investigaci Cooperativa, Ministerio de Econom , Industria y Competitividad, Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Illnesses (REIPI RD16/CIII/0004/0003), co-financed by European Development Regional Fund ERDF “A approach to accomplish Europe”, Operative plan Intelligent Development 2014020. Information Availability Statement: All sequence data and protocols related using the publication are offered to readers on request. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Khasin et al. BMC Plant Biology (2021) 21:391 ARTICLEOpen AccessPathogen and drought stress influence cell wall and phytohormone signaling to shape host responses inside a sorghum COMT bmr12 mutantMaya Khasin1,two, Lois F. Bernhardson1,2, Patrick M. O’Neill1,2, Nathan A. Palmer1,three, Erin D. Scully4,five, Scott E. Sattler1,three and Deanna L. Funnell-Harris1,2AbstractBackground: As effects of global climate change intensify, the interaction of biotic and abiotic stresses increasingly threatens current agricultural practices. The secondary cell wall is a vanguard of resistance to these stresses. Fusarium thapsinum (Fusarium stalk rot) and Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot) trigger internal harm to the stalks from the drought tolerant C4 grass, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), resulting in decreased transpiration, reduced photosynthesis, and increased lodging, severely decreasing yields. Drought can magnify these losses. Two null alleles in monolignol biosynthesis of sorghum (brown midrib 6-ref, MMP-1 Source bmr6-ref; cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, CAD; and FAAH Molecular Weight bmr12-ref; caffeic acid O-methyltransferase, COMT) were utilized to investigate the interaction of water limitation with F. thapsinum or M. phaseolina infection. Results: The bmr12 plants inoculated with either of those pathogens had increased levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) across each watering circumstances and considerably reduced lesion sizes below water limitation in comparison to adequate watering, which suggested that drought may possibly prime induction of pathogen resistance. RNASeq analysis revealed coexpressed genes associated with pathogen infection. The defense response incorporated phytohormone signal transduction pathways, key and secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes, and genes encoding components on the spliceosome and proteasome. Conclusion: Alterations inside the composition in the secondary cell wall influence immunity by influencing phenolic composition and phytohormone signaling, top for the action of defense pathways. Some of these pathways appear to be activated or enhanced by drought. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis and modification in SA and JA signal transduction might be involved in priming a stronger defense response in water-limited bmr12 plants. Keywords: Lignin, Monolignols, bmr6, bmr12, Drought, Fusarium, Macrophomina, Coexpression networks Correspondence: [email protected] 1 Wheat, Sorghum and Forage Study Unit, USDA-ARS,.