Eoptic region; MPOA; parental behavior; scientometry; systematic evaluation; citespace; document co-citation analysis; keyword analysis1. Introduction Across several species, social encounters and interactions are ubiquitous along with the regulation of social behaviours is crucial for overall health and survival. With all the advent of neurobiological techniques, researchers are in a position to investigate the neural basis underlying social behaviour, gaining insight into processes in the brain that govern social behaviour. Among the wide variety of social behaviours, this paper will concentrate on the study of parental behaviour and its neurobiological basis. As young in mammalian species are usually altricial at birth, parental care is generally a essential aspect for the survival and development of offspring. Parental behaviours kind a complicated category of activities influenced by a variety of internal and external aspects [1], where laboratory rodents are preferred animal models used to study these elements. In rodents, basic responses may be categorized into nurturance, indifference/avoidance and infanticide. Especially, parental behaviours consist of active behaviours for example nest construction, pup retrieval and licking of pups and quiescent behaviours for example quiescent positioning more than pups (see Lonstein and Fleming [2]). Sex variations are observed in parenting behaviours where male and female rodents differ in spontaneity of parental behaviours. When both virgin and postpartum female mice are spontaneously maternal and have an innate motivation to care for pups [2,3], virgin males normally engage in infanticideCopyright: 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This TrkA Formulation article is an open access article distributed below the terms and situations of your Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) PARP10 site license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 393. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainscihttps://www.mdpi.com/journal/brainsciBrain Sci. 2021, 11,2 ofwhere they attack and kill newborn pups as an adaptive reproductive tactic to enhance their mating opportunities [4]. On the other hand, male mice only come to be parental in the weeks following mating [6]. Similarly, female rats are (i) much less most likely to be infanticidal [7], (ii) extra spontaneously responsive to pups or probably to come to be parentally sensitized [102] and (iii) extra constant in displaying distinct parental behaviours [13,14]. With regards to the neurobiology underlying parental behaviours in rodents, the medial preoptic location (MPOA) from the hypothalamus–an location involved in thermoregulation and sexual behaviour–is among the key regions which has been implicated and is normally viewed as a central node in the handle of parenting. Empirical studies discovered (i) lesions in the MPOA disrupted parental behaviour [15], (ii) higher expression of receptors of modulators of parenting like estrogen, oxytocin, progesterone and prolactin [16], (iii) facilitation of parental behaviour when the MPOA is directly stimulated with estrogen [17,18]. Galaninexpressing neurons has also been located to govern parental behaviour in mice. Loss of galanin neurons in the MPOA was related using a reduction in parental behaviour in male and female mice though optogenetic activation of galanin neurons lowered pupdirected aggression and induced active pup grooming in male mice [19]. two. The Present Study Considerable progress in identifying brain areas and neural mechanisms underlying parenting has been produced within the last couple of decades (see [20.