Ary histoplasmosis Disseminated histoplasmosis Histoplasmoma African histoplasmosis Systemic mycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis Frequent
Ary histoplasmosis Disseminated histoplasmosis Histoplasmoma African histoplasmosis Systemic mycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis Prevalent symptoms involve fever, malaise, weight loss, skin and soft tissue lesions, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, cough and dyspnea Much less popular symptoms involve osteoarticular involvement, abdominal pain and diarrhea [19] Azoles, polyenes and antimetabolites Cryptococcal meningocephalitis Cryptococcal pneumonia Chronic cavitary tuberculosis Mild, self-limited hemoptysis Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis Chronic fibrotic pulmonary aspergillosis Severe asthma Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (in atopic patients) [20] Mucosal Candida infection, including oropharynx, esophagus and vagina Candidemia Acute disseminated candidiasis Infective endocarditis Vertebral osteomyelitis and diskitis S1PR3 Agonist manufacturer Endophthalmitis Meningitis Septic arthritis Tenosynovitis [11,21] Tissue necrosis Sinus discomfort, nasal congestion, fever, soft tissue swelling and headache Blurred vision or loss of vision Cranial neuropathies or cerebral abscesses Cutaneous mucormycosis, skin swelling, necrosis and formation of abscesses [22]Dimorphic mycosesH. capsulatumAzoles and polyenesP. brasiliensisT. marneffeiDisseminated cryptococcosisC. neoformans C. gattii A. fumigatus A. flavusAspergillosisA. terreus A. nidulans A. niger A. clavatus C. albicans C. tropicalis C. glabrataAzoles, polyenes, echinocandinsCandidiasis C. parapsilosis C. krusei C. auris Rhizopus spp. Mucormycosis Mucor spp. Cunninghamella bertholletiaeAzoles, polyenes, echinocandinsPolyenes and azolesAs with candidiasis, cryptococcosis can also be a globally distributed invasive fungal infection triggered by Cryptococcus species and leads to significant mortality and therapeutic challenges. Cryptococcus was first identified in 1894 in the tibia of a 31-year-old woman, and cryptococcosis has been attributed to a single fungal species Cryptococcus neoformans. The cryptococcosis epidemic is highly consistent using the AIDS pandemic of the 1980s [237]. Nonetheless, mainly because molecular technologies and epidemic study have enhanced, C. neoformans var. gattii was classified as a distinct species, C. gattii, in 2002. This species has been viewed as the causative fungi for the outbreak of cryptococcosis in the North American Pacific Northwest in 1999 [286]. Ecologically, cryptococci reside in several tree species, particularly the waxier cuticles, when C. neoformans is particularly abundant in pigeon excreta [25,37]. These two cryptococci may also survive and replicate in soil, amoebae, and RGS19 Inhibitor Formulation vertebrates [38]. Furthermore,Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22,3 ofthey have developed sophisticated techniques, like thermo-tolerance, pH-tolerance, and resistance to phagocytosis from host immune cells, which facilitate fungal development and persistence within environmental niches and vertebrates [393]. These techniques endow cryptococci with development benefits, like severe virulence. Cryptococcal infection begins with all the inhalation of cryptococci spores in to the lungs and may trigger pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients. On the other hand, these fungal cells establish an asymptomatic latent infection in immunocompetent hosts, exactly where the colonizing fungal cells can disseminate to other tissues, particularly the central nervous method, which happens through uncharacterized mechanisms [44,45]. After the brain has been colonized, cryptococcosis leads to a devastating infection from the meninges and lethal meningoencephalitis [46].